If you've read Carol Dweck, you may recall the advice to praise what a kid has done (choices, actions), not who a kid is ("You are so smart.") Dan Willingham writes up a recent experiment, with 10 year old Dutch kids. (Hey Bo, your peeps!)

Short version:

Kid fails. What happens if you praise "who he is" (i.e., the wrong kind of praise)?

And more specifically, what if he already has a poor self image?

....Adults are biased to do exactly the wrong thing--try to "buck up" kids with low-self esteem by offering person praise ("you're a great kid!") when these children will actually suffer more after a failure if they have received this praise.

Read Dan's whole summary here. Underlying study here.